In The Public Domain: Available And Free – For All

While not an official, legal symbol, the copyright symbol with a line through it has become the generally accepted way to indicate that a work is in the public domain. It is usually accompanied by one of the following two statements:

1. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. This applies worldwide.

2. I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. This applies worldwide. In case this is not legally possible, I grant anyone the right to use this work for any purpose, without any conditions, unless such conditions are required by law.

When copyright or other intellectual property restrictions expire, works will enter the public domain and may be used by anyone.
More specifically, the public domain comprises the body of knowledge and innovation, especially creative works such as writing, art, music, and inventions, in relation to which no person or other legal entity can
of the common cultural and intellectual heritage of humanity, which in general anyone may use or exploit.

Imagine The Possibilities!

Can you imagine having a nearly unlimited, free source of
completed information which you can use to enhance your bright idea?

What if you could simply tap into that source and create
products which you can resell and turn into a
profitable stream of income?
When you know how to tap into the
public domain, all of this is possible.

Works created before the advent of intellectual property laws are part of the public domain. The Bible and Qu’ran, the works of William Shakespeare and Ludwig van Beethoven and the inventions of Archimedes entered the public domain long ago. However, intellectual property rights may exist in translations or new formulations of these works.

In addition, works of the United States government are excluded from copyright law and may therefore be considered to be in the public domain. For example, works created by a U.S. government agency become part of the public domain at the moment of creation. Other examples include: NASA photographs, military journalism, federal court opinions (but not necessarily state court opinions), congressional committee reports, census data, and the U.S. government website. Availability of such documents may, however, be limited by secrecy laws.

In the United States, all copyrights and patents have a finite term; when this term expires, the work or invention is released into the public domain. For example, patents expire 20 years after they are filed. However, a trademark registration may be renewed and remain in force indefinitely provided the trademark is used, but could otherwise become generic. Copyrights are more complex; generally, they expire in all countries when a variety of specific conditions are satisfied.

Before 1978, unpublished works were not covered by the federal copyright act. This does not mean that the works were in the public domain; it means that they were covered under state copyright acts. Websites that claim that “pre-1923 works are safe” are wrong. These works, now under federal copyright, will not expire for several more decades.


Publishing the details of an invention before applying for a patent will generally place an invention in the public domain and prevent its subsequent patenting by others. For example, when a chemistry journal publishes a formula, this prevents patenting the formula by anyone. There is an exception to this; however, in U.S. law, the rightful inventor may file a patent claim up to one year after publishing it.

Trade Secrets

If guarded properly, trade secrets never enter the public domain. For example, a business may keep a product formula like that for Coca-Cola a secret indefinitely. However, if it is disclosed to the public, the former secret enters the public domain, although the former secret may still be patented in the United States.


A trademark registration is renewable. A trademark owner may maintain a registration indefinitely by paying renewal fees, using the trademark and defending the registration.

However, a trademark or brand may become a generic term for a particular type of product or service if people do not use it as a trademark (i.e. as a name or graphic representation exclusively identifying that that product or service originates from a particular business).

A genericized trademark — sometimes known as a generic trade mark, generic descriptor or proprietary eponym — is a trademark or brand name which has become synonymous with the general or formal term for a particular type of product or service, to the extent that it often replaces this term in colloquial usage.

One famous U.S, example is “thermos”. An interesting philosophical issue is that a manufacturer who invents an amazing breakthrough product which cannot be succinctly described in plain English (for example, a vacuum-insulated drinking flask) will inevitably find its product described by the trademark (“Thermos”). If the product continues to dominate the market, eventually the trademark will become generic (“thermos”). Other examples are: escalator, trampoline, raisin bran, linoleum, dry ice, shredded wheat, mimeograph, yo-yo, nylon, kerosene, cornflakes, cube steak, lanolin, and high octane, masonite, allen wrench, pabulum, styrofoam, and zipper.

One consequence of a trademark becoming generic is that the exclusive rights which may attach to the use or registration of the trademark can no longer be legally enforced. Genericide typically occurs over a period of time where the trademark owner does not maintain or enforce its proprietary rights (e.g. by using the mark or by pursuing infringement action).
However, genericide is not an inevitable process. In the late 1980s “Nintendo” was becoming synonymous with home video game consoles but Nintendo was able to reverse this process through marketing campaigns. Xerox was also successful in avoiding its name becoming synonymous with the act of photocopying.

Domain Names

A domain name, which may be bought and sold, never enters public domain. If nobody owns it, it simply doesn’t exist. Top level domains, such as .com, are controlled by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers.

Internet Public Domain Resources

Many people are using the Internet to contribute to the public domain, or make works in the public domain more accessible to more people. For example, Project Gutenberg is coordinating the efforts of people who transcribe works in the public domain into electronic form in order to create e-book. See the Resources section of this newsletter for key links.


The information for this article was retrieved from

Hover, the Domain Name Registration Service of Tucows Inc – The Hover Review to End All Reviews

There are a lot of domain name registration services out there and a prospective webmaster should always shop around. In fact, it’s one of the most competitive industries on the Internet. Prices regularly change, as do offerings and their quality. Hover, the subject of this article, claims that it is and will be different from other domain name registration services in a way that will be positive to the consumer. is the retail division of Tucows Inc., the third largest ICANN-accredited registrar and largest publicly traded domain name registrar in the world. Operating atop the reliable, robust OpenSRS platform and led by general manager Ross Rader, a man reputable for being a compassionate perfectionist, Hover is definitely a force in the industry to be reckoned with. Although the service only launched in 2009, it’s not necessarily correct to refer to it as a “new kid on the block” in the domain name and email business, as Hover is actually the result of the successful combination of three very successful companies.

Tucows has been around since 1994, when it got its start offering software downloads and reviews. Domain Direct, Tucows’ first domain name registration service, launched in 1997. In 1999, Tucows became ICANN-accredited and was one of the first registrars to do so. Over 10,000 service providers globally sell domains managed by Tucows via OpenSRS, Tucows’ advanced wholesale reseller platform. Presently, Tucows has over ten million – 10,000,000 – domain names under management.

In 2006, NetIdentity was acquired by Tucows and in 2007, so was It’s Your Domain (IYD). These two services, as well as Tucows’ own Domain Direct, were all successful. All under one roof, the task at hand became their successful amalgamation and it is from this that Hover was born. Hover is the result of the successful merging of Domain Direct, NetIdentity, and It’s Your Domain into one unit. In 2009, Hover went live.

Unlike many other domain name registration services, Hover tries hard to keep things simple while providing an intuitive, painless user experience. Additionally, instead of trying to be a jack-of-all-trades, Hover instead specializes in domain names and custom, personalized e-mail. The result of this is that there are no confusing add-ons or potentially misleading service offerings with Hover. Also, there are no hidden fees so an individual can rest assured that the price seen is the price paid, short of a sale or other form of discount. Customer service and pain-free usability are Hover’s top priorities.

The Hover experience revolves around the customer. When a customer calls customer service, a person answers the phone, not a recording. Whoever answers the phone can help without needing to ask somebody else for permission. Additionally, regardless of what one calls about, whoever answers the phone can provide assistance. All of Hover’s customer service staff have the same training and can handle everything from billing to technical issues. Customers can rest assured that they won’t have to spend time on hold and that they won’t have to endure being transferred from one department to another when they call or e-mail customer service.

Hover prides itself in having a very clean, advertisement free user interface. Unlike some other services that bombard customers with a constant slew of promotional offerings, Hover doesn’t try to push services on its customers. The minimalistic, advertisement-free interface of Hover makes it easy for customers to find what they need. Everything that a customer might need to do to manage their domains and/or personalized, custom email is easy to find. This is made possible by Hover giving a customer everything that customers actually need and nothing that they don’t.

Hover’s domain name registration process is quick and easy. Like with other domain registration services, one need only type in the name they desire to see if its available and proceed to purchase it. Unlike many other registrars, Hover’s checkout process is fast, taking only a few seconds to a minute at most for most people. Management of one’s new domain name, be it setting name servers, WHOIS data, turning off or on Private Registration, or making advanced DNS settings, is easy.

The NetIdentity component of Hover brought over 40,000 surname domain names into the equation. This makes it possible for Hover to offer first @ last. com style email addresses for everyone with a given last name since Hover owns the surname domains. For example, a Sylvia Gonzales could get sylvia @ gonzales. com,.net,.org, etc., depending on which names Hover had available. George Gonzales could get george @ gonzales. com. When purchasing a first / last surname e-mail address from Hover, one pays for the e-mail address, but Hover owns the domain. This makes it easier for people to get the perfect e-mail address for their identity.

Whether transferring in or transferring out of Hover, the process is as painless as possible. Hover does everything it can to make the transition in or even out of its service as easy as possible for incoming and outgoing customers alike. Hover doesn’t believe that a business should hold one’s domains hostage.

Admittedly, Hover had a few bumps to overcome when it launched. Most new services do. However, if Hover continues to offer great products for affordable prices and treat customers like human beings and actually provide them service when they contact customer service, Hover and Tucows Inc. may well eventually dominate the domain name registration scene.

Domain Web Hosting – Simple Tips To Help You

If you are a little confused about some of the terminology you are hearing online such as a domain name and domain web hosting, maybe I can help clarify things a little for you.

A domain name is like an address for your website (similar to the address for a house). It tells people where to go to find your website. The web hosting is more like the land that the house sits on, it’s the ‘physical’ part, the part where the actual data that makes up your website is stored.

There are several types of web hosting plans you can get and many different companies you can buy a web hosting plan from. Most of them are very inexpensive.

For example, you can get unlimited domain name hosting for as little as $10 a month. You may even be able to find other places that are even cheaper and you can also get discounts if you buy long term hosting.

For most people a shared hosting account will handle their needs. This is when thousands of people share one server, each person gets a little bit for their websites.

Think of it like this: there is a big storage facility where you can rent one unit to store all your stuff in. Some of the bigger facilities have hundreds of units but you are only using one small portion, your unit. It’s a similar concept with a shared hosting plan.

You can also get a dedicated hosting plan, this is a better option for bigger sites that get a lot of traffic. A dedicated host means just that, you are the only one using a server, it’s dedicated to you and your sites. This is only needed if you have a huge website that gets a lot of traffic. This option is a lot more expensive than shared hosting, usually costing hundreds of dollars a month.

A hybrid of both dedicated and shared hosting is the VPS hosting. This is a virtual dedicated server where more than one person uses the server. Confusing I know, but think of it as a more expensive (with more options) version of shared hosting and a cheaper (but still with more options than a shared plan) version of dedicated hosting.

The last form of web hosting is the reseller hosting plan. This is simply a plan where you can sign up for a reseller account and get a dedicated server but instead of using the server all by yourself you can resell space on the servers and you will be the one who gets paid.

With so many options it may get overwhelming to decide which type of domain web hosting will be the best choice for your business. For the most part, starting small with the shared hosting will handle most of the needs for the small to mid size internet business. As you grow and get more traffic (and have more money) a dedicated or VPS site may make more sense. But for now, shared is probably your best option.